Energy storage technology in the application of power grid development

Publish:TOPS TECHNOLOGY CO.,LIMITED  Time:2016-06-30
  In recent decades, energy storage technology research and development has been the energy, transportation, electric power, telecommunications and other departments. The application of energy storage technology in power system, mainly in the renewable energy generation moving peak, distributed energy and micro power grid, power ancillary services, power quality FM, electric car charger in electricity, etc, is to solve the key technology of new energy electricity storage.
  Electric energy can be converted into chemical energy, potential energy and kinetic energy, electromagnetic energy form for storage, according to the specific technical types can be divided into physical energy storage, electrochemical energy storage and electromagnetic energy storage with phase change energy storage, etc. Physical energy storage including pumped storage, compressed air energy storage and flywheel energy storage; The electromagnetic energy storage including superconducting, super capacitor energy storage capacitance and high energy density; Electrochemical energy storage including lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride, nickel cadmium, lithium ion, sodium sulfide and flow battery energy storage; Phase change energy storage including ice storage cold storage, etc.
  Physical energy storage is the dominant of the current grid type energy storage technology
  Pumped storage power energy storage technology is one of the main current. Upstream or downstream pumped storage power station is equipped with two reservoirs, off-peak load pumping energy storage equipment work in the state of motor, pump water to the reservoir upstream to the downstream reservoir preservation, pumping energy storage device when the peak load is in a state of generator, using stored in the water in the upstream reservoir to generate electricity.
  At present, the world within the scope of pumped storage power plant mainly distributed in the United States, Japan and Western Europe and other countries and regions, hooked up to the total installed capacity of more than 70 million kw, accounts for about 1.2% of the world‘s power generation capacity. And economy in developed countries such as America, Japan and Western Europe pumped storage unit capacity accounted for over 70% of the total installed capacity of pumped-storage plant in the world. In recent years, the world‘s large pumped-storage power station main application cases are Japanese rukawa god power station installed (2.82 million kw), the rocky mountain power station (760000 kw) installed in the United States, Germany, jingu power station installed (1.06 million kw).
  Compressed air energy storage is also a form of physical energy storage. Energy storage, the compressor to compress air coexist in gas storage room, storage room generally consists of a cylinder, caves, abandoned mine. Can release the high pressure air released from gas storage chamber, power generation. The world‘s current compressed air energy storage capacity of about 400000 kilowatts. Compressed air energy storage technology research began in the 1940 s, 70 s, Germany, the United States and other countries have put the compressed air energy storage system, will be decades to more than one hundred of atmospheric pressure air storage to mine or underground caves, when release can adopt the way of natural gas afterburning via gas turbine power generation, efficiency is 42% ~ 54%. Compressed air energy storage technology is mature, but the application of large-scale need cavern gas storage, the location has the certain difficulty, 2000 years after the world without new cases of commercial operation.
  Electrochemical energy storage development rapidly
  Lithium ion battery energy storage is the most widely used grid type of electrochemical energy storage. In recent years, large-scale lithium-ion energy storage technology is also has entered the stage of demonstration application, especially the power type lithium ion battery has been in power tools, electric bicycle, hybrid electric vehicles and other fields into commercial application. In addition, the United States, China and other countries in recent years in the research on high power lithium battery in the application of energy storage power station and practice. At present, the running of the world‘s biggest lithium-ion energy storage systems are A123 company invest in the construction of installed capacity of 2 mw of energy storage power station. By the end of 2014, the global grid type lithium ion storage capacity is about 293000 kw, among them the lithium ion battery installed, the largest of 110000 kilowatts.
  Flow REDOX battery, referred to as "flow or flow battery storage power station, is seen as a new, efficient, and has the broad prospects for development of large power energy storage battery. After 30 years research and development of relevant technologies and materials, flow REDOX battery business demonstration projects most of the countries are Japan, the main applications in the renewable energy power generation, power grid peak shaving, balanced load and small spare power station, power from 200 million to 6 megawatts of energy efficiency more than 70%. By the end of 2014, China flow battery installed capacity of more than 10000 kilowatts.
  The application of energy storage technology in power system
  In addition to the above popular energy storage technology, and some application more extensive way of energy storage.
  First is the flywheel energy storage, mainly applied to supplement for the battery system, such as for uninterruptible power supply/emergency power supply, power grid peak shaving and frequency control. By the end of 2014, flywheel energy storage with a total installed capacity of 40.5 mw in the United States, in Canada for 2 mw. Followed by the super capacitor, at present, the TVA 200 kilowatts of electric power company successfully developed the super capacitor energy storage system, it is mainly used for high power dc motor start-up support. Again is the superconducting magnetic energy storage, use will be made of a superconductor coil electromagnetic energy stored directly, then will return to the power grid or other electromagnetic energy load when needed. And thermal energy storage, the energy storage technology in the application of concentrated energy and client has important application. Finally, cryogenic energy storage technology, storage hot (cold) can be directly used in large-scale power management, use of low air pressure liquefied, effectively solve the general problem such as thermal storage technology energy density is small. At present, some demonstration power plant in collaboration with the British national grid application of cryogenic energy storage for the grid offers a variety of capacity requirements, and ancillary services.
  Energy storage technology can be widely used in electric power system, mainly depends on whether can reach a certain level of energy storage size, if you have suitable for engineering application of the equipment configuration, and whether it has the high safety and reliability and technical economy.
  Safe and reliable is always the basic requirements of power system operation, megawatt/mw level when the size of the energy storage system for the safety and reliability of the technology put forward higher request, whether under this size and larger run safely and reliably will is a kind of energy storage technology evaluation can be one of the indicators of large-scale commercial application.
  Future is widely used in electric power system of energy storage technology, at least to megawatt level/mw energy storage size. At present, the pumped storage, compressed air energy storage and electrochemical battery energy storage can achieve/mw megawatt level of energy storage size, and the flywheel energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage and super capacitor type energy storage technology is difficult to achieve mw power level. Specifically, large pumped storage and compressed air energy storage can be up to hundreds of megawatt/mw level, battery energy storage, do not use the underground cave and the new type of compressed air energy storage of natural gas can reach a megawatt/mw level. Therefore, because of high safety and reliability, the pumped storage, compressed air energy storage and battery energy storage type energy storage technology is the first choice for large-scale development of storage technology.
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